Parkinsonia (Parkinsonia aculeata)

WEED ALERT: REGIONALLY PROHIBITED WEED
If you see this plant contact your council weeds officer, the NSW Invasive Plants & Animals Enquiry Line 1800 680 244 or email weeds@dpi.nsw.gov.au
Also known as: Jerusalem thorn

Profile

Impact

Parkinsonia is an invasive spiny shrub or small tree that forms impenetrable dense thickets around watercourses such as drainage lines, creeks, dams, rivers and bores - leading to reduced water flow and availability of surface water, erosion and loss of native habitat. Infestations can also restrict access to land and waterways, degrade pasture, replace native plant species and provide shelter for feral animals.It is adapted to a range of climates and once established is capable of withstanding long periods of heat and drought. 

Distribution

Parkinsonia is native to Central America, the Caribbean, southern USA, Mexico and northern South America.

It has been introduced to many parts of the world and has become an invasive weed of South Africa, the Mediterranean, tropical Africa, south-western Asia, India and the Pacific Islands. Parkinsonia has also become invasive in parts of its native range including Mexico and southern USA.

Originally introduced to Australia in the late 1800s as a shade and ornamental tree, parkinsonia has now naturalised throughout most of northern Australia. The largest infestations occur in Queensland, the Northern Territory and northern Western Australia. Small isolated infestations have occurred in South Australia.

In New South Wales (NSW), isolated infestations have been identified in Broken Hill, Walgett, Bourke and the far north western corner of the state. Parkinsonia has the potential to invade the north and central coastal regions and most of western NSW.

Distribution map

Spread

Parkinsonia reproduces by seed. Water movement is responsible for most of its spread as seed pods can float and be carried large distances by floodwaters.

A mature tree usually produces around 5000 seeds per year. Seeds have a hard, thick coat and can remain dormant in the soil for a number of years. Dormancy is normally broken by wet and warm to hot conditions, and is then usually followed by a mass germination event.

Spread can also occur through movement of contaminated sand or soil from infested sites.

Description

Parkinsonia is a single- or multi-stemmed shrub or small tree that can grow up to 8 m high.

Key identification features

  • Stems are green, smooth and slender, slightly zig-zagged and drooping.
  • Each leaf stalk is green and flat, up to 30 cm long and 2–3 mm wide, with many small (4–10 mm) oblong leaflets staggered along each side.
  • Spines are sharp, 5–15 mm long and grow from the leaf nodes.
  • Fragrant flowers are about 2 cm across and 5-petalled, with four petals yellow and one erect orange or orange-spotted petal. Each flower stalk is 5–20 cm long and has 8–12 flowers.
  • Seed pods are hairless, up to 10 cm long, leathery and straw-coloured when ripe. They are straight with pointy ends and have constrictions between the seeds. Each pod usually contains 1–4 seeds, but occasionally up to 11.
  • Seeds are oblong, 8–10 mm long and olive to brown in colour.

Habitat

Parkinsonia grows well on open grasslands and rangelands, although wetlands and floodplains are particularly vulnerable to invasion.

Acknowledgements

Adapted from CRC Weed Management Guide (2003) Parkinsonia (Parkinsonia aculeata)

Reviewed by: Peter Gray; Edited by: Elissa van Oosterhout

References

Hosking JR, Sainty GR, Jacobs SWL & Dellow LL (in prep) The Australian WeedBOOK

back to top

Control

If you suspect you have found parkinsonia you should contact your local council weeds officer who will assist with identification, removal and eradication.

A range of control options are available for parkinsonia. A suitable control program should be tailored to suit the landscape and size of the infestation.

Herbicide options

WARNING - ALWAYS READ THE LABEL
Users of agricultural or veterinary chemical products must always read the label and any permit, before using the product, and strictly comply with the directions on the label and the conditions of any permit. Users are not absolved from compliance with the directions on the label or the conditions of the permit by reason of any statement made or not made in this information. To view permits or product labels go to the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority website www.apvma.gov.au

See Using herbicides for more information.


Hexazinone 250 g/L (Velpar® L)
Rate: 4 mL per spot
Comments: One spot per bush up to 5 m tall.
Withholding period: No stated withholding period.
Herbicide group: C, Inhibitors of photosynthesis at photosystem II (PS II inhibitors)
Resistance risk: Moderate


Hexazinone 250 g/L (Velpar® L)
Rate: 1 mL per spot
Comments: One spot per bush up to 1 m tall. Do not use near desirable plants.
Withholding period: No stated withholding period.
Herbicide group: C, Inhibitors of photosynthesis at photosystem II (PS II inhibitors)
Resistance risk: Moderate


Picloram 44.7 g/kg + Aminopyralid 4.47 g/L (Vigilant II ®)
Rate: Undiluted
Comments: Cut stump/stem injection application. Apply a 3–5 mm layer of gel for stems less than 20 mm. Apply 5 mm layer on stems above 20 mm .
Withholding period: Nil.
Herbicide group: I, Disruptors of plant cell growth (synthetic auxins)
Resistance risk: Moderate


Triclopyr 240 g/L + Picloram 120 g/L (Access™ )
Rate: 1.0 L in 60 L of diesel
Comments: Basal bark or cut stump application.
Withholding period: Nil
Herbicide group: I, Disruptors of plant cell growth (synthetic auxins)
Resistance risk: Moderate


back to top

Legal requirements

The content provided here is for information purposes only and is taken from the Noxious Weeds (Weed Control) Order 2014 published in the NSW Government Gazette, detailing weeds declared noxious in New South Wales, Australia, under the Noxious Weeds Act 1993. The Order lists the weed names, the control class and the control requirements for each species declared in a Local Control Authority area.

Area Class Legal requirements
Albury 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Balranald 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Bland 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Bogan 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Bourke 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Brewarrina 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Broken Hill 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Cabonne 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Carrathool 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Castlereagh Macquarie County Council 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Central Coast 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Central Darling 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Central Murray County Council 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Cessnock 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Cobar 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Coolamon 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Cootamundra-Gundagai 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Cowra 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Dungog 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Federation 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Forbes 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Glen Innes Severn 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Greater Hume 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Griffith 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Gunnedah 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Gwydir 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Hay 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Inverell 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Junee 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Lachlan 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Lake Macquarie 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Leeton 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Liverpool Plains 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Lockhart 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Maitland 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Mid-Western Regional 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Moree Plains 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Murray River (formerly Wakool) 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Murrumbidgee 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Narrabri 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Narrandera 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Narromine 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
New England Tablelands County Council 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Newcastle 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Orange 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Parkes 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Port Stephens 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Snowy Valleys 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Southern Slopes County Council 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Tamworth Regional 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Temora 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Tenterfield 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Unincorporated Area of Western Division 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Upper Hunter County Council 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Upper Lachlan 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Upper Macquarie County Council 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Wagga Wagga 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Weddin 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Wentworth 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Western Plains Regional 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant

back to top


Reviewed 2014