Arundinaria reed (Arundinaria species)

Also known as: Simon bamboo

Profile

Impact

Arundinaria reed is a small to large bamboo-like plant. The only Arundinaria species currently known to be a problem in Australia is Simon bamboo (Arundinaria simonii f. variegata), which has naturalised on Lord Howe Island.

Arundinaria reed was originally introduced as an ornamental bamboo. It grows in thick clumps and has the potential to become a serious weed of urban bushlands, roadsides and open woodland areas.

On Lord Howe Island it has spread from gardens into nearby World Heritage environmental areas. It out-competes native vegetation and prevents the growth of understorey species. Thick stands disrupt the nesting and burrowing behaviours of native birds.

Distribution

About eight species of Arundinaria occur worldwide. Native species originate from Asia and North America. It is a widely cultivated plant, mostly for ornamental purposes. It has been distributed into Taiwan, Japan, Vietnam, the Cook Islands and Australia.

Many types of cane, reed and bamboo type grasses exist within Australia. Arundinaria reed is only known to be present in NSW. It occurs as isolated infestations on Lord Howe Island and in small localised areas near Manly and Wagga Wagga in NSW.

Distribution map

Spread

Arundinaria reed is fast growing and mostly spreads by sending out underground runners. These runners produce new plants as straight, upright shoots. Most localised spread occurs in this way. It can also spread by seed, but this is less common.

New shoots are produced late spring to early summer. Flowering occurs at irregular times throughout the year, if at all.

Description

Arundinaria reed is an evergreen long-lived perennial grass, capable of growing to 13 m high.

Stems

  • green in colour
  • cylindrical
  • 0.5–6 cm in diameter
  • commonly 3–6 m tall with many nodes (joints) along its length
  • hollow between each node (internode)
  • mostly erect, with younger branches slight drooping

 Leaves

  • consist of a leaf sheath (part that wraps around the stem) and a leaf blade
  • leaf blades have smooth edges, are 10–25 cm long and 1.5–2.5 cm wide tapering to a point at the end
  • have a short stalk at the base of the leaf blade where it joins the leaf sheath
  • parallel veins run along the length of the blade

Flowerhead

  • varies between a slender and single stalked spike; and a multi-branched cluster, with each branch containing many smaller flower spikelets
  • spikelets are thin and oval in shape, 3–11 mm long and contain many flowers

Habitat

Arundinaria reed prefers semi-tropical or warmer temperate climates. It can tolerate part-shade through to full sun.

References

Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation (2011) Simon bamboo: Arundinaria simonii, Queensland Government. Available at http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/03030800-0b07-490a-8d04-0605030c0f01/media/Html/Arundinaria_simonii.htm

Department of the Environment (2011) Weeds in Australia: Arundinaria spp. Australian Government. Available at: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/invasive/weeds/identification/index.html

Ensbey, R (2011) Noxious and environmental weed control handbook. NSW Department of Primary Industries, Orange. Available at http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/agriculture/pests-weeds/weeds/publications/noxious-enviro-weed-control

Green PS (2014) Arundinaria spp.in PlantNET - The Plant Information Network System of The Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust, Sydney, Australia. Available at http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au

Zhu, Zheng-de; De-zhu, Li; Stapleton, Chris (2007), "Arundinaria", in Wu, Z. Y.; Raven, P.H.; Hong, D.Y., Flora of China 22, Beijing: Science Press; St. Louis: Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Available athttp://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=102740

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Control

Physical removal of Arundinaria reed gives the best results.

Herbicide methods of application include cut stump and foliar spray. Cut stump can be applied at anytime of the year. Foliar spray can be used on regrowth up to 0.5 m tall.

All infestations must be regularly monitored and regrowth treated.

Herbicide options

WARNING - ALWAYS READ THE LABEL
Users of agricultural or veterinary chemical products must always read the label and any permit, before using the product, and strictly comply with the directions on the label and the conditions of any permit. Users are not absolved from compliance with the directions on the label or the conditions of the permit by reason of any statement made or not made in this information. To view permits or product labels go to the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority website www.apvma.gov.au

See Using herbicides for more information.


PERMIT 9907 Expires 31/03/2020
Glyphosate 360 g/L (Roundup®)
Rate: 1 part glyphosate to 50 parts water
Comments: Spot spray. Spray regrowth up to 0.5 m only.
Withholding period: Nil.
Herbicide group: M, Inhibitors of EPSP synthase
Resistance risk: Moderate


PERMIT 9907 Expires 31/03/2020
Glyphosate 360 g/L (Roundup®)
Rate: 1 part glyphosate to 1.5 parts water
Comments: Cut stump. Retreatment necessary.
Withholding period: Nil.
Herbicide group: M, Inhibitors of EPSP synthase
Resistance risk: Moderate


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Legal requirements

The content provided here is for information purposes only and is taken from the Noxious Weeds (Weed Control) Order 2014 published in the NSW Government Gazette, detailing weeds declared noxious in New South Wales, Australia, under the Noxious Weeds Act 1993. The Order lists the weed names, the control class and the control requirements for each species declared in a Local Control Authority area.

All species in the Arundinaria genus are declared.

Area Class Legal requirements
Lord Howe Island 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed

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For technical advice and assistance with identification please contact your local council weeds officer.
For further information call the NSW Invasive Plants and Animals Enquiry Line on 1800 680 244 or send an email to weeds@dpi.nsw.gov.au

Reviewed 2014