Mikania vine (Mikania micrantha)

PROHIBITED MATTER: If you see this plant report it to the NSW Invasive Plants & Animals Enquiry Line 1800 680 244
Also known as: mile-a-minute

Mikania is a creeping or twining perennial vine capable of growing to 20 m high on supporting vegetation. It can smother native vegetation, plantation crops, forests and infrastructure.

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How does this weed affect you?

Mikania is a creeping or twining perennial vine capable of growing to 20 m high on supporting vegetation. It can smother native vegetation, plantation crops, forests and infrastructure, and is known as ‘mile-a-minute’ due to its rapid growth rate.

Mikania is invasive under tree crops and in the understorey of forests. It is able to grow up through the canopy of a forest and is a serious threat to the biodiversity of tropical and sub-tropical forest ecosystems.

Mikania produces toxins which, when released into the soil, reduce the growth of other plants such as native vegetation, crops and plantations.

Where is it found?

Mikania is native to Central and South America, from Mexico to Argentina and the Caribbean region.

It is a major weed of agriculture in the tropical areas of South and Southeast Asia, including China and Malaysia, where it has reportedly reduced yields in a number of plantation crops. It is also an invasive pest on Pacific and Indian Ocean islands, including Indonesia and Papua New Guinea

In Australia the first infestations of mikania were discovered in far north Queensland in 1998 at Ingham and Bingil Bay near Tully. It now occurs at a number of locations in north Queensland and is subject to an ongoing eradication campaign.

It has a potential distribution that covers the coastal regions of Northern Territory, northern Western Australia, Queensland and northern New South Wales (NSW).

Mikania is not known to be present in NSW.

How does it spread?

A mikania plant is capable of producing around 40 000 seeds each year. These small seeds are equipped with a pappus which assists wind dispersal and can be transported some distance from the original plant. Seeds can also be dispersed via animals, water and machinery.

Mikania is also able to reproduce vegetatively from stem fragments that take root at their nodes. Fragments can be spread by machinery and water. Cultivation practices can also break up and spread viable stem fragments.

What does it look like?

Mikania is a rapidly-growing multi-stemmed vine that prefers to climb over already established plants or structures. Young lateral shoots will twine around a plant’s own main stem until other support is found. In the absence of support it grows prostrate along the ground.

Key identification features

  • Leaves are heart-shaped, tapering to a sharp point, 4–13 cm long and 2–9 cm wide. They occur in opposite pairs along the stem on a stalk 2–8 cm long.
  • Stems are slender, ribbed with fine white hairs; although some stems may be hairless.
  • Flowers are produced in a flat-topped cluster, where each flower head is 4.5–6 mm long and contains four individual whitish flowers 2–4 mm long. Flowering occurs mostly between May and October, but can take place all year if plants are exposed to full sunlight.
  • Seeds are black, 1.5–2 mm long, thin and flattened. Each seed has a ‘parachute-like’ tuft of fine whitish bristles (pappus) that are 2–3 mm long.

Habitat

Mikania thrives in open, sunny, disturbed areas, but will also tolerate partial shade. It prefers warm and humid tropical climates with rich damp soils and an annual rainfall over 1000 mm.

Acknowledgements

Reviewed by: Rod Ensbey   Edited by: Elissa van Oosterhout

References

Queensland Government—Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation (2011) Fact sheet—Mikania vine Mikania micrantha

Hosking JR, Sainty GR, Jacobs SWL & Dellow LL (in prep) The Australian WeedBOOK

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Control

Your local council weeds officer will provide information and assistance with identification and control of any suspected mikania plants.

Herbicide options

WARNING - ALWAYS READ THE LABEL
Users of agricultural or veterinary chemical products must always read the label and any permit, before using the product, and strictly comply with the directions on the label and the conditions of any permit. Users are not absolved from compliance with the directions on the label or the conditions of the permit by reason of any statement made or not made in this information. To view permits or product labels go to the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority website www.apvma.gov.au

See Using herbicides for more information.


PERMIT 9907 Expires 31/03/2020
Fluroxypyr 200 g/L (Starane™)
Rate: 500 mL to 1 L per 100 L water
Comments: Spot spray
Withholding period: 7 days.
Herbicide group: I, Disruptors of plant cell growth (synthetic auxins)
Resistance risk: Moderate


PERMIT 9907 Expires 31/03/2020
Fluroxypyr 200 g/L (Starane™)
Rate: 35 mL per L diesel/kerosene
Comments: Basal bark
Withholding period: 7 days.
Herbicide group: I, Disruptors of plant cell growth (synthetic auxins)
Resistance risk: Moderate


PERMIT 9907 Expires 31/03/2020
Fluroxypyr 333 g/L (Starane™ Advanced)
Rate: 300 to 600 mL per 100 L water
Comments: Spot spray
Withholding period: 7 days.
Herbicide group: I, Disruptors of plant cell growth (synthetic auxins)
Resistance risk: Moderate


PERMIT 9907 Expires 31/03/2020
Fluroxypyr 333 g/L (Starane™ Advanced)
Rate: 21 mL per L diesel/kerosene
Comments: Basal bark
Withholding period: 7 days.
Herbicide group: I, Disruptors of plant cell growth (synthetic auxins)
Resistance risk: Moderate


PERMIT 9907 Expires 31/03/2020
Glyphosate 360 g/L (Roundup®)
Rate: One part product to 50 parts water
Comments: Spot spray
Withholding period: Nil.
Herbicide group: M, Inhibitors of EPSP synthase
Resistance risk: Moderate


PERMIT 9907 Expires 31/03/2020
Glyphosate 360 g/L (Roundup®)
Rate: One part product to 1.5 parts water
Comments: Cut, scrape and paint
Withholding period: Nil.
Herbicide group: M, Inhibitors of EPSP synthase
Resistance risk: Moderate


PERMIT 9907 Expires 31/03/2020
Glyphosate 360 g/L (Roundup®)
Rate: One part product to 9 parts water
Comments: Splatter gun
Withholding period: Nil.
Herbicide group: M, Inhibitors of EPSP synthase
Resistance risk: Moderate


PERMIT 9907 Expires 31/03/2020
Glyphosate 360 g/L (Roundup®)
Rate: One part product to 20 parts water
Comments: Wipe onto leaves
Withholding period: Nil.
Herbicide group: M, Inhibitors of EPSP synthase
Resistance risk: Moderate


PERMIT 9907 Expires 31/03/2020
Metsulfuron-methyl 600 g/kg (Brush-off®)
Rate: 10 - 20g per 100 L water plus surfactant
Comments: Spot spray
Withholding period: Nil (recommended not to graze for 7 days before treatment and for 7 days after treatment to allow adequate chemical uptake in target weeds).
Herbicide group: B, Inhibitors of acetolactate synthase (ALS inhibitors)
Resistance risk: High


PERMIT 9907 Expires 31/03/2020
Metsulfuron-methyl 600 g/kg (Brush-off®)
Rate: 10 g per 1 L of water plus surfactant
Comments: Wipe onto leaves
Withholding period: Nil (recommended not to graze for 7 days before treatment and for 7 days after treatment to allow adequate chemical uptake in target weeds).
Herbicide group: B, Inhibitors of acetolactate synthase (ALS inhibitors)
Resistance risk: High


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Biosecurity duty

The content provided here is for information purposes only and is taken from the Biosecurity Act 2015 and its subordinate legislation, and the Regional Strategic Weed Management Plans (published by each Local Land Services region in NSW). It describes the state and regional priorities for weeds in New South Wales, Australia.

Area Duty
All of NSW General Biosecurity Duty
All plants are regulated with a general biosecurity duty to prevent, eliminate or minimise any biosecurity risk they may pose. Any person who deals with any plant, who knows (or ought to know) of any biosecurity risk, has a duty to ensure the risk is prevented, eliminated or minimised, so far as is reasonably practicable.
All of NSW Prohibited Matter
A person who deals with prohibited matter or a carrier of prohibited matter is guilty of an offence. A person who becomes aware of or suspects the presence of prohibited matter must immediately notify the Department of Primary Industries
*all species in the genus Mikania are Prohibited Matter in NSW

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For technical advice and assistance with identification please contact your local council weeds officer.
For further information call the NSW Invasive Plants and Animals Enquiry Line on 1800 680 244 or send an email to weeds@dpi.nsw.gov.au

Reviewed 2018