Garden geranium (Pelargonium alchemilloides)

Garden geranium is a low, sprawling plant. It is an escaped garden plant that threatens the natural environment.

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How does this weed affect you?

Garden geranium is a native of South Africa that has become a weed in other countries with a Mediterranean climate similar to much of southern Australia. It can grow in variable conditions including drought prone areas due to its underground rhizome tubers, and can dominate understorey vegetation. Garden geranium is an escaped garden plant that now threatens the natural environment and could potentially threaten agriculture. 

Where is it found?

Garden geranium, a member of the South African geranium family, was originally planted in gardens for its ornamental value in southwestern Western Australia. Its distrubtion is localised in southwestern Western Australia. It has since become a naturalised weed in peppermint woodland (Agonis flexuosa) 2 km inland from Hamelin Bay in the Margaret River region. Its introduction to Australia is estimated to have occurred in the early 20th century, when a timber settlement was in place. 

Distribution map

How does it spread?

Garden geranium reproduces bothvegetatively and via seeds. Seedproduction is prolific, but plants canalso be propagated from stem cuttings,fleshy roots or tuberous (rhizome) roots.The underground rhizome system, upto 6 m in length, ensures its survival in dry periods and at times when seed production is not successful. Soil distrubance is thought to have been the major cause of its more recent population increase, as the rate of spread was slowuntil roadworks using graders and trucks occurred. Seeds and broken pieces of the rhizome are able to propagate easily indisturbed soil. It is possible for seeds to remain viable in the soil for a long period of time, as some species of Pelargonium have in-built chemical inhibitors to prevent all the seeds germinating at the same time. 

What does it look like?

Garden geranium is a low, sprawling plant, growing from a central rosette ofleaves and forming flowering branches that spread out and continually produce flowers from the tip of the branch. It grows to approximately 200 mm highand forms an underground tuber up to 6 m in length. The stems are herbaceous and slender and can appear straggly. Longhairs cover the entire plant.

The leaves are 20–70 mm in diameter, have irregular edges, are mostly round in shape and are lobed in up to five separate segments. The plant can also be distinguished by purple-brown horseshoe-shaped markings on the leaves. 

The flowers are white or grey in colour, with up to five petals in an arrangement similar to an umbrella. Fifteen flowers are possible on each plant.

Seeds are contained within a distinctive pod shaped like a crane’s bill. A single plant will die out after a few years, but will easily re-establish new individuals because it is a prolific seed producer.

What type of environment does it grow in?

The weed is exceptionally adaptable, will tolerate arid conditions, and can also thrive in areas of high rainfall. 

Acknowledgements

CRC for Australian Weed Management: Greg Keighery (CALM WA), Annaleisha Sullivan (GeoCatch WA), Rod Randall (WA Agriculture / Weeds CRC), Robin Parer (Geraniaceae Nursery).

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Control

Because there is only the one known infestation of garden geranium, it can potentially be eradicated. New outbreaks should be reported immediately to your local council weed officer. Do not try to control garden geranium without their expert assistance. Control effort that is poorly performed or not followed up can actually help spread the weed and worsen the problem.

Herbicide options

WARNING - ALWAYS READ THE LABEL
Users of agricultural or veterinary chemical products must always read the label and any permit, before using the product, and strictly comply with the directions on the label and the conditions of any permit. Users are not absolved from compliance with the directions on the label or the conditions of the permit by reason of any statement made or not made in this information. To view permits or product labels go to the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority website www.apvma.gov.au

See Using herbicides for more information.


PERMIT 9907 Expires 31/03/2020
Fluroxypyr 200 g/L (Starane™)
Rate: 500 mL to 1 L per 100 L water
Comments: Spot spray
Withholding period: 7 days.
Herbicide group: I, Disruptors of plant cell growth (synthetic auxins)
Resistance risk: Moderate


PERMIT 9907 Expires 31/03/2020
Fluroxypyr 333 g/L (Starane™ Advanced)
Rate: 300 to 600 mL per 100 L water
Comments: Spot spray
Withholding period: 7 days.
Herbicide group: I, Disruptors of plant cell growth (synthetic auxins)
Resistance risk: Moderate


PERMIT 9907 Expires 31/03/2020
Glyphosate 360 g/L (Roundup®)
Rate: One part product to 50 parts water
Comments: Spot spray
Withholding period: Nil.
Herbicide group: M, Inhibitors of EPSP synthase
Resistance risk: Moderate


PERMIT 9907 Expires 31/03/2020
Glyphosate 360 g/L (Roundup®)
Rate: One part product to 9 parts water
Comments: Splatter gun
Withholding period: Nil.
Herbicide group: M, Inhibitors of EPSP synthase
Resistance risk: Moderate


PERMIT 9907 Expires 31/03/2020
Glyphosate 360 g/L (Roundup®)
Rate: One part product to 20 parts water
Comments: Wipe onto leaves
Withholding period: Nil.
Herbicide group: M, Inhibitors of EPSP synthase
Resistance risk: Moderate


PERMIT 9907 Expires 31/03/2020
Metsulfuron-methyl 600 g/kg (Brush-off®)
Rate: 10 - 20 g per 100 L water plus surfactant
Comments: Spot spray
Withholding period: Nil (recommended not to graze for 7 days before treatment and for 7 days after treatment to allow adequate chemical uptake in target weeds).
Herbicide group: B, Inhibitors of acetolactate synthase (ALS inhibitors)
Resistance risk: High


PERMIT 9907 Expires 31/03/2020
Metsulfuron-methyl 600 g/kg (Brush-off®)
Rate: 10 g per 1 L of water plus surfactant
Comments: Wipe onto leaves
Withholding period: Nil (recommended not to graze for 7 days before treatment and for 7 days after treatment to allow adequate chemical uptake in target weeds).
Herbicide group: B, Inhibitors of acetolactate synthase (ALS inhibitors)
Resistance risk: High


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Biosecurity duty

The content provided here is for information purposes only and is taken from the Biosecurity Act 2015 and its subordinate legislation, and the Regional Strategic Weed Management Plans (published by each Local Land Services region in NSW). It describes the state and regional priorities for weeds in New South Wales, Australia.

Area Duty
All of NSW General Biosecurity Duty
All plants are regulated with a general biosecurity duty to prevent, eliminate or minimise any biosecurity risk they may pose. Any person who deals with any plant, who knows (or ought to know) of any biosecurity risk, has a duty to ensure the risk is prevented, eliminated or minimised, so far as is reasonably practicable.

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Reviewed 2018