Boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. monilifera)

WEED ALERT: STATE PROHIBITED WEED
If you see this plant contact your council weeds officer, the NSW Invasive Plants & Animals Enquiry Line 1800 680 244 or email weeds@dpi.nsw.gov.au

Profile

Impact

Boneseed has the ability to aggressively invade native bushland in Australia. Its vigorous growth and ability to regenerate and spread quickly in disturbed situations, such as fire or clearing, allows it to outcompete native species. It is also a threat to a number of significant rare or threatened species.

Distribution

Boneseed is found over much of southern Australia. In NSW, scattered infestations occur along the south and central coasts, and isolated infestations have occurred in central and western parts of the state. Without effective control, boneseed has the potential to become more abundant across its current distribution and spread into new areas, with most of southern NSW under threat.

Distribution map

Spread

Boneseed reproduces by seed. One plant can produce 50 000 seeds a year, of which approximately 60% are viable. For some seeds, the hard seed coat splits open, allowing them to germinate as soon as there is sufficient moisture. Other seeds remain intact and can stay viable in the soil for more than ten years.

Seeds can be spread by birds, rabbits, foxes and cattle, as well as in contaminated landscape supplies and dumped garden waste.

Description

Boneseed is an erect, perennial shrub which grows up to 3 m high. It is often mistaken for bitou bush (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. rotundata), which has a more sprawling habit.

Key identification features

  • Woody stems are branched and upright.
  • Leaves are 3-9 cm long and alternate along the stems. They are oval shaped with irregularly serrated edges. New growth is covered with white hairs that are shed as the leaves mature.
  • Flowers are yellow with 5-8 petals and up to 3 cm in diameter. Peak flowering occurs from August to October. Some plants flower in the first year, although most are at least 18 months old.
  • Young fruit are round, green and fleshy and turn black when mature. They contain a single, smooth, round seed (6-7 mm diameter) which is bone-coloured when dry, giving rise to the name ‘boneseed’.

Habitat

Boneseed prefers sandy or medium textured soils and tolerates salty conditions, therefore thriving in coastal conditions. However it can grow in a range of habitats including dunes, mallee, open woodlands and sclerophyll forests, preferring winter rainfall regions. It does not persist when grazed or cultivated, therefore is not a threat to agriculture.

Acknowledgements

Prepared by: Kirrily Condon; Reviewed by Royce Holtkamp; Edited by Elissa van Oosterhout, Birgitte Verbeek.

References

CRC for Australian Weed Management (2003) Weed Management Guide – BoneseedChrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. Monilifera

Brougham KJ, Cherry H & Downey PO (eds) (2006) Boneseed Management Manual: current management and control options for boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera) in Australia, Department of Environment and Conservation NSW, Sydney.

Other publications

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Control

Your local council weeds officer will assist with identification and information on control, removal and eradication of this weed. Infestations can be spread by inappropriate control activities.

Biological control

The boneseed leaf buckle mite (Aceria sp.) has been released and esablished in other states, but has had minimal impact on boneseed populations. It has not been released in NSW.

Herbicide options

WARNING - ALWAYS READ THE LABEL
Users of agricultural or veterinary chemical products must always read the label and any permit, before using the product, and strictly comply with the directions on the label and the conditions of any permit. Users are not absolved from compliance with the directions on the label or the conditions of the permit by reason of any statement made or not made in this information. To view permits or product labels go to the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority website www.apvma.gov.au

See Using herbicides for more information.


PERMIT 12251 Expires 31/03/2021
Glyphosate 360 g/L (Roundup®)
Rate: 2 L /ha
Comments: Aerial boom spray applications. Refer to the critical use comments in the permit.
Withholding period: Nil.
Herbicide group: M, Inhibitors of EPSP synthase
Resistance risk: Moderate


PERMIT 12251 Expires 31/03/2021
Metsulfuron-methyl 600 g/kg (Brush-off®)
Rate: 20–30g /ha
Comments: Aerial boom spray applications. Refer to the critical use comments in the permit.
Withholding period: Nil (recommended not to graze for 7 days before treatment and for 7 days after treatment to allow adequate chemical uptake in target weeds).
Herbicide group: B, Inhibitors of acetolactate synthase (ALS inhibitors)
Resistance risk: High


2,4-D 300 g/L + Picloram 75 g/L (Tordon® 75-D)
Rate: 650 mL per 100 L of water
Comments: Spray to wet all foliage thoroughly. Treat at flowering to fruiting stage.
Withholding period: 1-8 weeks (see label).
Herbicide group: I, Disruptors of plant cell growth (synthetic auxins)
Resistance risk: Moderate


Glyphosate 360 g/L (Roundup®)
Rate: 5 or 10 mL per 1 L of water
Comments: Handgun or knapsack. Spray to wet all foliage. Apply at peak flowering to actively growing bushes during winter. Do not apply during periods of drought stress. Use the higher rate for plants over 1.5 m.
Withholding period: Nil.
Herbicide group: M, Inhibitors of EPSP synthase
Resistance risk: Moderate


Glyphosate 360 g/L (Roundup®)
Rate: 1 part per 29 parts water or 1 part per 19 parts water
Comments: Gas gun / Splatter gun application. Use the higher rate on bushes over 1.5 m
Withholding period: Nil.
Herbicide group: M, Inhibitors of EPSP synthase
Resistance risk: Moderate


Metsulfuron-methyl 300 g/kg + Aminopyralid 375 g/kg (Stinger™)
Rate: 20 g per 100 L of water
Comments: Spray to thoroughly wet all foliage.
Withholding period: 3 - 56 days (see label)
Herbicide group: B, Inhibitors of acetolactate synthase (ALS inhibitors) + I, Disruptors of plant cell growth (synthetic auxins)
Resistance risk: High/Moderate


Metsulfuron-methyl 600 g/kg (Brush-off®)
Rate: 1 g/L + organosilicone penetrant
Comments: Gas gun / Splatter gun application. Apply as close as possible to the flowering stage.
Withholding period: Nil (recommended not to graze for 7 days before treatment and for 7 days after treatment to allow adequate chemical uptake in target weeds).
Herbicide group: B, Inhibitors of acetolactate synthase (ALS inhibitors)
Resistance risk: High


Metsulfuron-methyl 600 g/kg (Brush-off®)
Rate: 10 g per 100 L of water
Comments: Spray to wet all foliage thoroughly.
Withholding period: Nil (recommended not to graze for 7 days before treatment and for 7 days after treatment to allow adequate chemical uptake in target weeds).
Herbicide group: B, Inhibitors of acetolactate synthase (ALS inhibitors)
Resistance risk: High


Picloram 44.7 g/kg + Aminopyralid 4.47 g/L (Vigilant II ®)
Rate: Undiluted
Comments: Cut stump/stem injection application. Apply a 3–5 mm layer of gel for stems less than 20 mm. Apply 5 mm layer on stems above 20 mm .
Withholding period: Nil.
Herbicide group: I, Disruptors of plant cell growth (synthetic auxins)
Resistance risk: Moderate


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Legal requirements

The content provided here is for information purposes only and is taken from the Noxious Weeds (Weed Control) Order 2014 published in the NSW Government Gazette, detailing weeds declared noxious in New South Wales, Australia, under the Noxious Weeds Act 1993. The Order lists the weed names, the control class and the control requirements for each species declared in a Local Control Authority area.

Area Class Legal requirements
All of NSW 1 State Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant

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Reviewed 2014