Uruguayan rice grass (Piptochaetium montevidense)

Uruguayan rice grass is a perennial that forms dense tussocks. So far, Uruguayan rice grass has only been found in Victoria. Any new outbreaks should be reported.

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How does this weed affect you?

Because it forms dense tussocks, is stimulated by fire and is resistant to grazing, Uruguayan rice grass may compete well against native plants in Australia. Uruguayan rice grass is related to the genus Nassella, which includes the Weeds of National Significance Chilean needle grass (Nassella neesiana) and serrated tussock (Nassella trichotoma), which costs south-eastern Australia’s grazing industries more than $40 million a year in lost production and control expenditure.

Where is it found?

Uruguayan rice grass is native to Argentina, Bolivia, southern Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Chile, and is also considered native in parts of North America. Its only known distribution in Australia, where it was first recorded as naturalised in 1988, is an infestation in disturbed grassland dominated by kangaroo grass (Themeda triandra) near Altona, Victoria.

Distribution map

How does it spread?

In South America, Uruguayan rice grass produces many seeds. Although the exact volume of seed produced is unknown, the closely related species serrated tussock (N. trichotoma) can produce tens of thousands of seeds per plant per year. The seed is dispersed by wind and also by browsing animals ingesting the plant and excreting the viable seed elsewhere. Seeds can also be spread by movement of contaminated soil. Anecdotal evidence suggests that seeds are not carried or dispersed externally by stock.

What does it look like?

Uruguayan rice grass is a perennial that forms dense tussocks to about 0.5 m high.

The leaf blades are about 0.5 mm in diameter and almost the same length as the stems, which are jointed. While the leaf sheath may have scattered hairs, the leaf blades are hairless but covered with minute rough projections. The ligule (a small flap located at the junction of the leaf blade and leaf sheath) is 1–2 mm in length and hairless. The ligule can be located by tracing a leaf down to where it joins the sheath and bending the leaf back at this point. 

The plant has dense, branched flowering heads to about 100 x 15 mm. The seed is about 2 mm long, and the bristle-like tail of the seed (the ‘awn’) is about 10 mm long. The leaf-like structures (glumes) at the base of the flowering spikelet are up to 3.5 mm long and purplish in colour when young. 

What type of environment does it grow in?

Uruguayan rice grass grows best in temperate and subhumid climates. Stipoid grasses (such as Uruguayan rice grass) generally invade sites with modified soils that are highly degraded and have a history of disturbance, especially land with higher fertility that has been used for grazing or farming. However, they can also invade relatively undisturbed vegetation. 

Acknowledgements

CRC for Australian Weed Management: Val Stajsic (National Herbarium of Victoria), David McLaren (DPI Vic/Weeds CRC), David Cooke (APCC). 

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Control

Because there has been only one Uruguayan rice grass infestation detected, it can potentially be eradicated before it becomes established. Any new outbreaks should be reported immediately to your local council weed officer and the state herbarium. Do not try to control Uruguayan rice grass without their expert assistance. Control effort that is poorly performed or not followed up can actually help spread the weed and worsen the problem. 

Herbicide options

WARNING - ALWAYS READ THE LABEL
Users of agricultural or veterinary chemical products must always read the label and any permit, before using the product, and strictly comply with the directions on the label and the conditions of any permit. Users are not absolved from compliance with the directions on the label or the conditions of the permit by reason of any statement made or not made in this information. To view permits or product labels go to the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority website www.apvma.gov.au

See Using herbicides for more information.


PERMIT 9792 Expires 30/11/2020
Flupropanate 745 g/L (Tussock®)
Rate: 1.5 to 3 L per ha
Comments: Broadacre control
Withholding period: Don't graze cows or goats that are being milked on treated areas. Blanket sprayed pastures - grazing or cutting for stock feed - 120 days. Spot sprayed areas - grazing or cutting for stock feed - 14 days. Don't graze stock on treated areas for 14 days prior to slaughter.
Herbicide group: J, Inhibitors of fat synthesis (Not ACCase inhibitors)
Resistance risk: Moderate


PERMIT 9792 Expires 30/11/2020
Flupropanate 745 g/L (Tussock®)
Rate: 100 to 300 mL per 100 L of water
Comments: Spot spray control
Withholding period: Don't graze cows or goats that are being milked on treated areas. Blanket sprayed pastures - grazing or cutting for stock feed - 120 days. Spot sprayed areas - grazing or cutting for stock feed - 14 days. Don't graze stock on treated areas for 14 days prior to slaughter.
Herbicide group: J, Inhibitors of fat synthesis (Not ACCase inhibitors)
Resistance risk: Moderate


PERMIT 9792 Expires 30/11/2020
Flupropanate 745 g/L (Tussock®)
Rate: 500 mL per 10 L water
Comments: Wiper suppression
Withholding period: Don't graze cows or goats that are being milked on treated areas. Blanket sprayed pastures - grazing or cutting for stock feed - 120 days. Spot sprayed areas - grazing or cutting for stock feed - 14 days. Don't graze stock on treated areas for 14 days prior to slaughter.
Herbicide group: J, Inhibitors of fat synthesis (Not ACCase inhibitors)
Resistance risk: Moderate


PERMIT 9792 Expires 30/11/2020
Glyphosate 360 g/L (Roundup®)
Rate: 3 L per ha
Comments: Broadacre control
Withholding period: Nil.
Herbicide group: M, Inhibitors of EPSP synthase
Resistance risk: Moderate


PERMIT 9792 Expires 30/11/2020
Glyphosate 360 g/L (Roundup®)
Rate: 1 L per 100 L of water
Comments: Spot spray
Withholding period: Nil.
Herbicide group: M, Inhibitors of EPSP synthase
Resistance risk: Moderate


PERMIT 9792 Expires 30/11/2020
Glyphosate 360 g/L (Roundup®)
Rate: 3.3 L per 10 L water
Comments: Wiper suppression
Withholding period: Nil.
Herbicide group: M, Inhibitors of EPSP synthase
Resistance risk: Moderate


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Biosecurity duty

The content provided here is for information purposes only and is taken from the Biosecurity Act 2015 and its subordinate legislation, and the Regional Strategic Weed Management Plans (published by each Local Land Services region in NSW). It describes the state and regional priorities for weeds in New South Wales, Australia.

Area Duty
All of NSW General Biosecurity Duty
All plants are regulated with a general biosecurity duty to prevent, eliminate or minimise any biosecurity risk they may pose. Any person who deals with any plant, who knows (or ought to know) of any biosecurity risk, has a duty to ensure the risk is prevented, eliminated or minimised, so far as is reasonably practicable.

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Reviewed 2018