Cassia (Senna pendula var. glabrata)

Also known as: senna

Profile

Impact

Cassia is popular garden plant that invades native ecosystems, particularly in coastal areas. It is a fast growing plant that can suppress the growth of native species and displace them. It produces large amounts of long-lived seeds.

Distribution

Cassia is native to Brazil and Paraguay. It is widely distributed through eastern parts of NSW. It is most common along the coastal or sub-coastal regions of NSW and Queensland.

Spread

Cassia is spread by seed and sometimes by suckers.

Description

Cassia is an upright, spreading or sprawling shrub usually growing 2-4 m tall, but occasionally reaching up to 5 m. It is distinguished by the absence of spines and prickles.

The stems are multi-branched and become woody with age. Younger stems are green and sparsely hairy, but become hairless and darker as they mature.

Leaves

The compound leaves (made up of leaflets) are 4-8 cm long and are alternately arranged along the stems and borne on stalks 20-40 mm long. Each leaf is composed of 3-5 pairs of dark green leaflets with rounded tips. These leaflets are egg-shaped to oval, with those closer to the stem generally being smaller. They are almost hairless and have a prominent lighter coloured middle vein. There is a small cone shaped gland between the two lowest leaflets of each leaf.

Flowers

The pea-like flowers are bright yellow, about 30 mm across, with five large petals. They are borne in clusters at the tips of the branches, and each flower is on a stalk. These flowers have two or three prominent curved stamens, four or five smaller stamens, and as well as three tiny petal-like structures at their centres.

Fruit (pods)

The fruits are cylindrical pods that hang downwards and are 10-20 cm long. These pods turn from green to pale brown as they mature, contain 5-40 brown seeds.

Habitat

Cassia is a weed of waterways, gardens, disturbed sites, waste areas, roadsides, closed forests, forest margins and urban bushland in tropical, subtropical and warmer temperate regions.

References

Environment.gov.au (2014). Weeds search. Available at: http://www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/biodiversity/invasive/weeds/weeddetails.pl?taxon_id=16954# (Accessed November 2014).

Hosking JR, Sainty GR, Jacobs SWL and Dellow JJ (in prep). The Australian WeedBOOK.

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Control

Herbicide options

WARNING - ALWAYS READ THE LABEL
Users of agricultural or veterinary chemical products must always read the label and any permit, before using the product, and strictly comply with the directions on the label and the conditions of any permit. Users are not absolved from compliance with the directions on the label or the conditions of the permit by reason of any statement made or not made in this information. To view permits or product labels go to the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority website www.apvma.gov.au

See Using herbicides for more information.


PERMIT 9907 Expires 31/03/2020
Glyphosate 360 g/L (Roundup®)
Rate: 1 part per 1.5 parts of water
Comments: Stem injection/cut stump application.
Withholding period: Nil.
Herbicide group: M, Inhibitors of EPSP synthase
Resistance risk: Moderate


PERMIT 9907 Expires 31/03/2020
Glyphosate 360 g/L (Roundup®)
Rate: 200 mL glyphosate per 10 L water
Comments: Spot spray application.
Withholding period: Nil.
Herbicide group: M, Inhibitors of EPSP synthase
Resistance risk: Moderate


PERMIT 9907 Expires 31/03/2020
Glyphosate 360 g/L with Metsulfuron-methyl 600 g/kg (Various products)
Rate: 200 mL glyphosate plus 1.5 g metsulfuron-methyl per 10 L water
Comments: Spot spray application.
Withholding period: Nil.
Herbicide group: M, Inhibitors of EPSP synthase
Resistance risk: Moderate


PERMIT 9907 Expires 31/03/2020
Metsulfuron-methyl 600 g/kg (Brush-off®)
Rate: 1.0–2.0 g metsulfuron-methyl per 10 L water
Comments: Spot spray application.
Withholding period: Nil (recommended not to graze for 7 days before treatment and for 7 days after treatment to allow adequate chemical uptake in target weeds).
Herbicide group: B, Inhibitors of acetolactate synthase (ALS inhibitors)
Resistance risk: High


Picloram 44.7 g/kg + Aminopyralid 4.47 g/L (Vigilant II ®)
Rate: Undiluted
Comments: Cut stump/stem injection application. Apply a 3–5 mm layer of gel for stems less than 20 mm. Apply 5 mm layer on stems above 20 mm .
Withholding period: Nil.
Herbicide group: I, Disruptors of plant cell growth (synthetic auxins)
Resistance risk: Moderate


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Legal requirements

The content provided here is for information purposes only and is taken from the Noxious Weeds (Weed Control) Order 2014 published in the NSW Government Gazette, detailing weeds declared noxious in New South Wales, Australia, under the Noxious Weeds Act 1993. The Order lists the weed names, the control class and the control requirements for each species declared in a Local Control Authority area.

Area Class Legal requirements
Hunters Hill 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Ku-ring-gai 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Lane Cove 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Lord Howe Island 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed
Mosman 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
North Sydney 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Northern Beaches 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Ryde 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Willoughby 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed

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For technical advice and assistance with identification please contact your local council weeds officer.
For further information call the NSW Invasive Plants and Animals Enquiry Line on 1800 680 244 or send an email to weeds@dpi.nsw.gov.au

Reviewed 2014