Cape broom (Genista monspessulana)

Also known as: Montpellier broom

Profile

Impact

Cape broom is an evergreen, perennial shrub that was introduced to Australia as an ornamental garden plant and hedge. It prefers temperate climates with an annual rainfall over 500 mm and is now a major weed of bushlands, pastures and roadsides across southern Australia.

Distribution

Cape broom is native to the Mediterranean region, Portugal and the Azores. It is considered a major weed in many countries, including New Zealand, Chile, South Africa and the USA.

In New South Wales, Cape broom is an invasive weed of the southern and central tablelands, in particular the Blue Mountains and the Hawkesbury/Nepean catchment. It is also a problem in many northern Sydney areas and has smaller infestations located in the New England and South Coast regions.

Distribution map

Spread

Cape broom reproduces from seed. Most spread is by soil movement and it is possible that graders and other roadside machinery have been responsible for spreading Cape broom along roadsides and into new areas. Animals may also contribute to dispersal. Plants begin to flower and produce seeds at two years of age. Seeds are hard-coated and can survive for many years in the soil. While germination usually occurs annually, major germination and survival events generally occur after fire or soil disturbance.

Description

Cape broom is an upright, perennial shrub growing to 3 m high. It usually has one main stem with many branches.

Key identification features

  • Young stems are ridged, green and lightly hairy, becoming woody and hairless with age.
  • Leaves are trifoliate (three-leaflets) on a central short stalk, with the centre leaflet being slightly longer than the outer two. Leaves are hairy mainly on their undersides, are oblong in shape and often end in a short point.
  • Flowers are bright yellow and pea-like. They are 8–12 mm long and grow at the ends of branches in clusters of 3 to 9. Flowering occurs from late winter to spring.    
  • Pods are hairy all over, brown to black in colour, 15–25 mm long and 3–5 mm wide. They contain 5–8 seeds.
  • Seeds are dark brown to black, up to 3 mm long, smooth, rounded and slightly flattened.

Acknowledgements

Adapted from CRC Weed Management Guide (2003) Cape broom (Genista monspessulana).

Reviewed by: Michael Michelmore; Edited by: Elissa van Oosterhout.

References

Hosking JR, Sainty GR, Jacobs SWL & Dellow LL (in prep) The Australian WeedBOOK.

Other publications

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Control

Cape broom can be mistaken for some native species. Correct identification is important and a local council weeds officer can assist with identification, removal and control if you suspect you have found Cape broom.

Biological control

Two biological control agents have a significant impact on Cape broom. The Cape broom psyllid (Artinnis hakani) and a seed weevil (Lepidapion sp.) can both give good control. 

Herbicide options

WARNING - ALWAYS READ THE LABEL
Users of agricultural or veterinary chemical products must always read the label and any permit, before using the product, and strictly comply with the directions on the label and the conditions of any permit. Users are not absolved from compliance with the directions on the label or the conditions of the permit by reason of any statement made or not made in this information. To view permits or product labels go to the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority website www.apvma.gov.au

See Using herbicides for more information.


Picloram 100 g/L + Triclopyr 300 g/L + Aminopyralid 8 g/L (Grazon Extra®)
Rate: 250 or 350 mL per 100 L water
Comments: Use higher rate on trees over 2m tall. Apply as a thorough foliar spray.
Withholding period: Where product is used to control woody weeds in pastures there is a restriction of 12 weeks for use of treated pastures for making hay and silage; using hay or other plant material for compost, mulch or mushroom substrate; or using animal waste from animals grazing on treated pastures for compost, mulching, or spreading on pasture/crops.
Herbicide group: I, Disruptors of plant cell growth (synthetic auxins)
Resistance risk: Moderate


Picloram 44.7 g/kg + Aminopyralid 4.47 g/L (Vigilant II ®)
Rate: Undiluted
Comments: Cut stump application. Apply a 3–5 mm layer of gel across the cut surface on the rhizome.
Withholding period: Nil.
Herbicide group: I, Disruptors of plant cell growth (synthetic auxins)
Resistance risk: Moderate


Triclopyr 300 g/L + Picloram 100 g/L (Grazon® DS)
Rate: 250 or 350 mL per 100 L of water
Comments: Spring to mid summer prior to pod formation. Apply as a thorough foliage spray.
Withholding period: Nil.
Herbicide group: I, Disruptors of plant cell growth (synthetic auxins)
Resistance risk: Moderate


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Legal requirements

The content provided here is for information purposes only and is taken from the Noxious Weeds (Weed Control) Order 2014 published in the NSW Government Gazette, detailing weeds declared noxious in New South Wales, Australia, under the Noxious Weeds Act 1993. The Order lists the weed names, the control class and the control requirements for each species declared in a Local Control Authority area.

Area Class Legal requirements
Albury 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Balranald 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Bayside 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Bega Valley 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Bellingen 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Bland 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Blue Mountains 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Burwood 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Cabonne 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Camden 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Campbelltown 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Canada Bay 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Canterbury-Bankstown 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Carrathool 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Central Coast 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Central Murray County Council 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Cessnock 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Clarence Valley 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Coffs Harbour 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Coolamon 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Cootamundra-Gundagai 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Cowra 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Cumblerland 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Dungog 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Eurobodalla 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Fairfield 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Federation 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Forbes 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Georges River 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Glen Innes Severn 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Goulburn Mulwaree 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Greater Hume 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Griffith 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Hawkesbury River County Council 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Hay 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Hornsby 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Hunters Hill 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Inner West 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Inverell 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Junee 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Kempsey 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Ku-ring-gai 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Lake Macquarie 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Lane Cove 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Leeton 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Liverpool 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Liverpool Plains 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Lockhart 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Lord Howe Island 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Maitland 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Mid-Coast 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Mid-Western Regional 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Mosman 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Murray River (formerly Wakool) 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Murrumbidgee 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Nambucca 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Narrandera 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Narromine 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
New England Tablelands County Council 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Newcastle 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
North Sydney 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Northern Beaches 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed only in the area formerly known as Warringah Council
Northern Beaches 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed only in the areas formerly known as Manly Council and Pittwater Council
Orange 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Parkes 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Parramatta 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Port Macquarie-Hastings 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Port Stephens 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Queanbeyan-Palerang Regional 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed only in the area formerly known as Palerang Council
Randwick 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Rous County Council 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Ryde 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Shoalhaven 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Snowy Monaro Regional 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Snowy Valleys 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Strathfield 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Sutherland 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Tamworth Regional 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Temora 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Tenterfield 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Upper Hunter County Council 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Upper Lachlan 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Upper Macquarie County Council 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Wagga Wagga 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Waverley 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Weddin 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Wentworth 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Western Plains Regional 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Willoughby 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Wingecarribee 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Wollondilly 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Woollahra 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed

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For technical advice and assistance with identification please contact your local council weeds officer.
For further information call the NSW Invasive Plants and Animals Enquiry Line on 1800 680 244 or send an email to weeds@dpi.nsw.gov.au

Reviewed 2016