Chilean needle grass (Nassella neesiana)

WEED ALERT: REGIONALLY PROHIBITED WEED
If you see this plant contact your council weeds officer, the NSW Invasive Plants & Animals Enquiry Line 1800 680 244 or email weeds@dpi.nsw.gov.au

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Impact

Chilean needle grass is closely related to serrated tussock (Nassella trichotoma). Chilean needle grass affects both sown pasture and native grasslands of southeastern Australia. It is relatively unpalatable and reduces farm productivity by displacing more desirable pasture species. Heavy infestations can decrease productivity by as much as 50% during summer. It also causes injury to stock and downgrades wool, skins and hides with its long, sharp seeds.

Research on the Northern Tablelands of NSW by the University of New England has shown that the main reason for the success of Chilean needle grass is its large, long-lived reserve of viable seed in the soil seed bank. This seed bank can persist for many years even if further seed input is prevented. It is a prolific seeder, with the potential to produce more than 20,000 seeds per square metre in a good season. It also has hidden seeds under the leaf sheaths at each of the nodes on the flowering stems that mature even if the seed head has been removed. 

Distribution

Chilean needle grass is a serious weed on the Northern Tablelands and north-west slopes of New South Wales. According to records at the National Herbarium, it was first identified in NSW during the early 1940s in the Glen Innes region.

It is thought to have spread very slowly until the late 1970s. Identifications of this species from the Guyra - Glen Innes area since the mid 1970’s have increased indicating its ability to spread. In 1996 a major infestation was identified near Tamworth in the Reedy Creek catchment. Chilean needle grass is also well established on the Southern Tablelands and southwest slopes of NSW and in southern and central Victoria.

Chilean needle grass is a native of South America occurring in Argentina, Uruguay, Chile and Brazil. It has become naturalised in New Zealand, South Africa and several European countries. In Australia, Chilean needle grass is considered a weed because it is very invasive and is less productive/lower quality than introduced pasture, causing a reduction of carrying capacity. 

Distribution map

Spread

Chilean needle grass germinates in autumn and spring and at other times of the year given adequate moisture and temperature. The seedling grows quite slowly but has a very high survival rate and can produce flowers in the first season. The adult plant is long-lived and very hardy, surviving heavy grazing and drought.

Seed heads emerge during late spring, and when mature have a very distinctive purplish colour. The individual seeds are very sharp at the apex (hence the name). By late February, most of the seed has been shed from the plant and can be found on the ground. Wind dispersal of seed appears to be almost negligible. Most of the spread is by attachment to animals (both domestic and wildlife) or machinery, particularly motor vehicles. The backward pointing hairs on the apex of the seed anchor firmly in the wool of sheep. These seeds may fall from the fleece several months later, spreading the seed to new regions. Sometimes, Chilean needle grass seed will penetrate the skin of sheep reducing their hide value and may irritate individual animals.

Description

Chilean needle grass appears very similar to the native spear grasses (Austrostipa spp.). The most diagnostic feature of Chilean needle grass (and only found in this species) is the corona — a raised crown of small teeth, at the junction of the seed body and the seed awn. The awn twists when dry and often has two bends in it.

Vegetative (green leafy) plants of Chilean needle grass can be mistaken for many other winter green species, especially Danthonia and fescue. Close examination reveals the presence of hairs along the leaf surface of Chilean needle grass by contrast with the hairless leaves of fescue and the much coarser feel of needle grass leaves compared with Danthonia. Chilean needle grass also has a small tuft of hairs at the junction of the leaf blade and the leaf sheath, which most other grasses do not have.

Chilean needle grass forms a robust tussock but is variable and not as clumpy as Poa or many Eragrostis species. 

Habitat

The main requirement for establishment of Chilean needle grass is bare ground that can be created by over grazing or indiscriminate herbicide application. 

Acknowledgements

Authors: A. M. Storrie and J. C. Lowien

Editor: Bill Noad

Technical reviewers: Dr Mark Gardener, M. Duncan and M. Michelmore

Other publications

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Control

Once established in an area and allowed to set seed, it is unlikely Chilean needle grass can be eradicated. This is because established populations have a persistent seed bank that will enable reinfestation even if adult plants have been killed. Small newly establishing infestations may be eradicated with a great deal of persistence.

The management options of established Chilean needle grass populations depend on the land use. These options include crop rotation, pasture sowing, herbicide control and grazing management with best results where a combination of options is used. The management goals should aim to reduce the soil seed bank and minimise the Chilean needle grass component of the pasture by creating conditions that hinder its growth. The most important of these conditions is the maintenance of good ground cover through competitive perennial pastures and grazing management.

Arable areas

On arable lands timely planting of crops can keep Chilean needle grass populations to a minimum. Where ploughing is possible, planting a sequence of fodder crops for two or three years will reduce the weed seed bank. However seeds buried as a result of deep cultivation will remain viable for longer periods than those near the surface.

Winter or summer forage cropping or summer grain cropping programs can be used. The important issue with any of the cropping programs is to make sure that any seedlings that germinate and go through winter are prevented from flowering and seeding in late spring/early summer either by chemical, cultivation or very heavy grazing.

Following the cropping phase establishment of a perennial pasture will provide competition for remaining Chilean needle grass seedlings. The pasture must be allowed to properly establish and maintain good ground cover all year-round and develop height plus bulk from November to February to have a smothering effect against Chilean needle grass seedlings. In addition, regular paddock inspection and spot spraying to eliminate newly emerged plants is vital to maintain clear areas.

Non-arable areas

The same principles apply as those for arable areas. The seed bank should be reduced by a succession of short-term pasture or annual fodder crops established by direct drilling. In many locations, steep or stony country causes great difficulty, even for direct drilling. In these areas, aerial application of herbicide, seed and fertiliser would be necessary, but, where possible, ground application of herbicide is preferred to reduce off-target damage.

Pasture management of these areas is vital to ensure plenty of competition to needle grass seedlings. Strategic grazing and resting of pasture should aim to maintain comprehensive ground cover, particularly during spring and autumn germination of Chilean needle grass seeds.

For specific pasture species and management recommendations for your area refer to the appropriate pasture management guides.

Grazing management

One inexpensive and adaptable tool available to most landholders is grazing management. Although Chilean needle grass is less palatable than other introduced pasture plants, research has shown that during winter it produces a reasonable quantity of average quality feed (up to 16.6% crude protein and digestibility of approximately 60% — in comparison the temperate pasture grass fescue had crude protein up to 18.8% and digestibility of approx. 65%). In extensive areas of Chilean needle grass where it is uneconomical or impractical to control, consideration should be given to utilisation in winter in combination with pasture topping or weed wiping in spring. In South America it is considered an important winter growing pasture grass. However, during summer it produces little green leaf and a large amount of unpalatable flower stalk.

Because of its lower palatability compared to other pasture species, a high density –short duration strategic grazing management system is preferable. This allows better utilisation of the pasture as well as allowing the faster growing desirable species such as fescue to slow the growth of Chilean needle grass through shading.

A heavy grazing with cattle in spring, when the flower heads were developing, reduces the number of flower stalks produced and made the grass more palatable to stock. Landholders have made Chilean needle grass dominated pastures more productive by using heavy stock densities for a short duration during the flowering period. Spraytopping of the pasture in the early flowering period with very low herbicide rates is also said to increase palatability.

The most important thing in any system of grazing management is to maintain good ground cover and favourable conditions for the faster growing desirable pasture species.

Chemical control

In research conducted by NSW DPI glyphosate gave 90% control at 1.5 L/ha when applied in autumn, but was significantly less effective from a spring application. By contrast fluproponate was equally effective from a spring or autumn application.

Chemical control is a useful tool to be used in a management program. Herbicide application before direct drilling is essential. Later in a program, spot spraying of re-invading seedlings will also be vital to reduce pasture degradation.

Glyphosate will generally be preferred to fluproponate for initial boom spraying in autumn where the area is to be resown because of the high cost of fluproponate. Glyphosate is used for or to assist in seedbed preparation prior to direct drilling, conventional preparation or aerial seeding.

Fluproponate would be preferred for smaller infestations, spot spraying or removing Chilean needle grass from an established pasture where the infestation is large enough to warrant boom spraying. At registered boom spraying rates fluproponate has reasonable selectivity, leaving behind pasture species such as fescue and cocksfoot.

However some pasture species are sensitive to fluproponate depending on timing — for example phalaris is sensitive to autumn applications but has little effect when applied in summer. Label information on selectivity should be carefully read. Manufacturers should be contacted if in doubt.

Under some circumstances, usually at flowering, low rates of glyphosate can be added to the slower acting fluproponate to provide a quicker desiccation and reduce seed production. 

Weed wipers using glyphosate have been used on Chilean needle grass with varying success. If plants are wiped between flowering and milky-dough stage (usually November to early December) panicle seed set is prevented. This overcomes seed problems when grazing (wool vegetable fault and eye/carcass injuries). Wiping to kill plants has not been highly successful, with less than 60% kill.

Pasture topping is a useful technique for seed sterilisation in spring/early summer. For sheep producers this allows Chilean needle grass paddocks to be grazed (after complying with chemical withholding periods) without the panicle seed causing significant problems with wool vegetable fault or eye/carcass injuries. It also significantly reduces the amount of seed going to the soil seed bank.

Chemical control has its drawbacks. The non-selectivity of most herbicides result in the death of both desirable and target species. Since Chilean needle grass has a large seed bank and a requirement for bare ground to establish, the resulting vegetation after herbicide application may actually have a greater proportion of the weed. Bare ground resulting from herbicide application should be re-seeded to provide the germinating Chilean needle grass with competition. If there are only a few plants it is probably better to remove them by hand than create a bare area with spot spraying.

It must be emphasised that chemical application alone will not control Chilean needle grass.

Herbicide options

WARNING - ALWAYS READ THE LABEL
Users of agricultural or veterinary chemical products must always read the label and any permit, before using the product, and strictly comply with the directions on the label and the conditions of any permit. Users are not absolved from compliance with the directions on the label or the conditions of the permit by reason of any statement made or not made in this information. To view permits or product labels go to the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority website www.apvma.gov.au

See Using herbicides for more information.


PERMIT 9792 Expires 30/11/2020
Glyphosate 360 g/L (Roundup®)
Rate: 1 L per 100 L water
Comments: Spot spray
Withholding period: Nil.
Herbicide group: M, Inhibitors of EPSP synthase
Resistance risk: Moderate


PERMIT 9792 Expires 30/11/2020
Glyphosate 360 g/L (Roundup®)
Rate: 1 L/ha
Comments: Boom spray
Withholding period: Nil.
Herbicide group: M, Inhibitors of EPSP synthase
Resistance risk: Moderate


Flupropanate 745 g/L (Tussock®)
Rate: 1.5–3.0 L/ha
Comments: Boom application. Apply to actively growing plants.
Withholding period: Don't graze cows or goats that are being milked on treated areas. Blanket sprayed pastures - grazing or cutting for stock feed - 120 days. Spot sprayed areas - grazing or cutting for stock feed - 14 days. Don't graze stock on treated areas for 14 days prior to slaughter.
Herbicide group: J, Inhibitors of fat synthesis (Not ACCase inhibitors)
Resistance risk: Moderate


Flupropanate 745 g/L with Glyphosate 360 g/L (Various products)
Rate: 200 mL flupropanate plus 150 mL glyphosate 360g/L per 100 L of water
Comments: Spot spray application. Apply to actively growing plants.
Withholding period: Don't graze cows or goats that are being milked on treated areas. Blanket sprayed pastures - grazing or cutting for stock feed - 120 days. Spot sprayed areas - grazing or cutting for stock feed - 14 days. Don't graze stock on treated areas for 14 days prior to slaughter.
Herbicide group: J, Inhibitors of fat synthesis (Not ACCase inhibitors)
Resistance risk: Moderate


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Legal requirements

The content provided here is for information purposes only and is taken from the Noxious Weeds (Weed Control) Order 2014 published in the NSW Government Gazette, detailing weeds declared noxious in New South Wales, Australia, under the Noxious Weeds Act 1993. The Order lists the weed names, the control class and the control requirements for each species declared in a Local Control Authority area.

Area Class Legal requirements
Albury 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Balranald 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Bayside 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant only in the area formerly known as Rockdale Council
Bayside 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed only in the area formerly known as Botany Bay Council
Bega Valley 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Bellingen 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Bland 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Blue Mountains 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Bogan 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Bourke 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Brewarrina 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Broken Hill 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Burwood 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Cabonne 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Camden 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Campbelltown 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Canada Bay 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Canterbury-Bankstown 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed only in the area formerly known as Bankstown Council
Canterbury-Bankstown 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant only in the area formerly known as Canterbury Council
Carrathool 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Castlereagh Macquarie County Council 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Central Coast 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Central Darling 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Central Murray County Council 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Cessnock 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Clarence Valley 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Cobar 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Coffs Harbour 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Coolamon 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Cootamundra-Gundagai 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Cowra 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Cumblerland 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Dungog 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Eurobodalla 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Fairfield 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Federation 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Forbes 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Georges River 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant only in the area formerly known as Kogarah City Council
Georges River 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed only in the area formerly known as Hurstville City Council
Glen Innes Severn 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Goulburn Mulwaree 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Greater Hume 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Griffith 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Gunnedah 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Gwydir 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Hawkesbury River County Council 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Hay 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Hornsby 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Hunters Hill 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Illawarra District Weeds Authority 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Inner West 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Inverell 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Junee 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Kempsey 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Ku-ring-gai 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Lachlan 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Lake Macquarie 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Lane Cove 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Leeton 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Liverpool 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Liverpool Plains 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Lockhart 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Lord Howe Island 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Maitland 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Mid-Coast 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Mid-Western Regional 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Moree Plains 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Mosman 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Murray River (formerly Wakool) 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Murrumbidgee 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Nambucca 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Narrabri 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Narrandera 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Narromine 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
New England Tablelands County Council 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Newcastle 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
North Sydney 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Northern Beaches 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Orange 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Parkes 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Parramatta 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Port Macquarie-Hastings 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Port Stephens 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Queanbeyan-Palerang Regional 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Randwick 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Rous County Council 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Ryde 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Shoalhaven 2 Regionally Prohibited Weed
The plant must be eradicated from the land and that land must be kept free of the plant
Snowy Monaro Regional 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Snowy Valleys 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Southern Slopes County Council 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Strathfield 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Sutherland 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Sydney 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Tamworth Regional 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Temora 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Tenterfield 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Unincorporated Area of Western Division 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Upper Hunter County Council 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Upper Lachlan 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Upper Macquarie County Council 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Wagga Wagga 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Waverley 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Weddin 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Wentworth 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Western Plains Regional 3 Regionally Controlled Weed
The plant must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed only in the area formerly known as Wellington Council
Western Plains Regional 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed only in the area formerly known as Dubbo City Council
Willoughby 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Wingecarribee 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Wollondilly 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed
Woollahra 4 Locally Controlled Weed
The growth of the plant must be managed in a manner that continuously inhibits the ability of the plant to spread and the plant must not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed

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Reviewed 2016