Galenia (Galenia pubescens)

Also known as: coastal galenia, carpet weed

Profile

Impact

Drought and salt tolerant, galenia grows over and smothers existing vegetation by forming a thick dense mat. It invades coastal dunes, pastures, disturbed areas, lawns, roadsides and rocky outcrop vegetation. Galenia is known to produce nitrates that can be toxic to stock.

Bees that collect the nectar of galenia produce honey with such a disagreeable flavour that is unsaleable.

Distribution

Native to South Africa. It has now naturalised in the USA, Spain and Chile.

Galenia is scattered throughout many sites in NSW, Victoria, South Australia and Western Australia. It is of particular concern through the Hunter Valley and Liverpool Plains regions of NSW.

In Victoria it is spreading throughout the outer western suburbs of Melbourne, stretching into the western districts and encroaching into conservation areas. In South Australia galenia is an environmental weed that is problematic along the west coast of the Eyre and York Peninsulas. 

Spread

Galenia reproduces by seed. Most dispersal of seed occurs by wind, water, birds and livestock. Movement of contaminated soil by vehicles and equipment can also contribute to its spread.

Lifecycle

A deep rooted perennial herb that flowers from late spring to early autumn.

Description

A perennial creeping, herbaceous plant growing to about 60 cm high and 1–2 m wide.

Stems

  • woody at the base
  • covered in scale-like hairs 0.3–0.7 mm long

Leaves

  • alternate
  • slightly succulent
  • greyish-green in colour
  • hairy
  • oblong to spoon-shaped with smooth edges and pointed tips
  • 0.4–2.5 cm long and 0.2–2 cm wide

Flower

  • small, 4–6 mm across
  • occur as a single flower in the leaf fork
  • 5 small petals, 2-3 mm long
  • white, greenish-white or pinkish in colour

Fruit

  • a small capsule
  • 2.5–3 mm long and about 1 mm wide
  • usually contains 5 seeds

Seed

  • circular to kidney-shaped
  • dark red to brown in colour
  • about 1.5 mm long
  • has rows of small bumps along its length

Habitat

Preferring a temperate climate of wet winters and long, dry summers, galenia will also grow in semi-arid and sub-tropical environments. Galenia thrives in a variety of soil types, ranging from stony, sandy and loams. It will quickly invade neglected areas, but will also encroach into pastures and relatively undisturbed environmental areas. It is a considerable threat to coastal dunes.

Acknowledgements

Written by Rachele Osmond

Reviewed by Rod Ensbey

References

Australia’s Virtual Herbarium (2007) Council Heads of Australian Herbaria (CHAH) Available at: http://avh.chah.org.au. Accessed August 2014.

Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation (2011) Coastal galenia: Galenia pubescens var. pubescens, Queensland Government. Accessed August 2014.

Department of the Environment (2011) Weeds in Australia: Galenia pubescens. Australian Government. www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/invasive/weeds/identification/index.html. Accessed August 2014. 

Ensbey, R (2011) Noxious and environmental weed control handbook. NSW Department of Primary Industries, Orange. Available at http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/agriculture/pests-weeds/weeds/publications/noxious-enviro-weed-control

Hosking JR, Sainty GR, Jacobs SWL & Dellow JJ (in prep) The Australian WeedBOOK.

back to top

Control

Small infestations and individual plants may be removed by hand pulling or digging out. Make sure to remove the large taproot, otherwise plants will regrow.

Removing large infestations can potentially leave significant areas of bare ground. Consider revegetating these areas following control.

Herbicide control

Galenia is a difficult weed to control and will require consistent treatments, using a registered herbicide. Best applied using a foliar spray, when plants are actively growing, during spring and summer on fresh, new growth.

Always check controlled areas and re-treat as necessary.

Herbicide options

WARNING - ALWAYS READ THE LABEL
Users of agricultural or veterinary chemical products must always read the label and any permit, before using the product, and strictly comply with the directions on the label and the conditions of any permit. Users are not absolved from compliance with the directions on the label or the conditions of the permit by reason of any statement made or not made in this information. To view permits or product labels go to the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority website www.apvma.gov.au

See Using herbicides for more information.


Picloram 100 g/L + Triclopyr 300 g/L + Aminopyralid 8 g/L (Grazon Extra®)
Rate: 500 mL per 100 L of water
Comments: Fresh spring/summer growth. High volume spot spray, treat to visual wetness.
Withholding period: Where product is used to control woody weeds in pastures there is a restriction of 12 weeks for use of treated pastures for making hay and silage; using hay or other plant material for compost, mulch or mushroom substrate; or using animal waste from animals grazing on treated pastures for compost, mulching, or spreading on pasture/crops.
Herbicide group: I, Disruptors of plant cell growth (synthetic auxins)
Resistance risk: Moderate


Picloram 100 g/L + Triclopyr 300 g/L + Aminopyralid 8 g/L (Grazon Extra®)
Rate: 5 L/ha
Comments: Boom spray. Apply in 2000 L water /ha.
Withholding period: Where product is used to control woody weeds in pastures there is a restriction of 12 weeks for use of treated pastures for making hay and silage; using hay or other plant material for compost, mulch or mushroom substrate; or using animal waste from animals grazing on treated pastures for compost, mulching, or spreading on pasture/crops.
Herbicide group: I, Disruptors of plant cell growth (synthetic auxins)
Resistance risk: Moderate


Triclopyr 300 g/L + Picloram 100 g/L (Grazon® DS)
Rate: 500 mL per 100 L of water
Comments: Fresh spring/summer growth. High volume spot spray, treat to visual wetness.
Withholding period: Nil.
Herbicide group: I, Disruptors of plant cell growth (synthetic auxins)
Resistance risk: Moderate


Triclopyr 300 g/L + Picloram 100 g/L (Grazon® DS)
Rate: 5 L/ha
Comments: Boom spray application
Withholding period: Nil.
Herbicide group: I, Disruptors of plant cell growth (synthetic auxins)
Resistance risk: Moderate


back to top

Biosecurity duty

The content provided here is for information purposes only and is taken from the Biosecurity Act 2015 and its subordinate legislation, and the Regional Strategic Weed Management Plans (published by each Local Land Services region in NSW). It describes the state and regional priorities for weeds in New South Wales, Australia.

Area Duty
All of NSW General Biosecurity Duty
All plants are regulated with a general biosecurity duty to prevent, eliminate or minimise any biosecurity risk they may pose. Any person who deals with any plant, who knows (or ought to know) of any biosecurity risk, has a duty to ensure the risk is prevented, eliminated or minimised, so far as is reasonably practicable.

back to top


Reviewed 2014