Aleman grass grows up to 3 m high in wet and swampy areas. It takes over wetlands and floodplains. It competes with native plants reducing food and habitat for fish and other animals.
Aleman grass forms dense stands in wetlands, swampy areas and along banks of watercourses. It:
Aleman grass accumulates large amounts of nitrate in its leaves and stems during drought conditions. Cattle eating high nitrate feeds can get nitrate and/or nitrite poisoning. Avoid grazing Aleman grass until after the drought breaks and the grass is actively growing again.
Aleman grass is an aquatic or semi-aquatic perennial grass that spreads via runners. It forms dense stands up to 3 m tall.
Where the leaf blade joins the leaf sheath there is a fringe of stiff yellow hairs up to 4 mm long.
Aleman grass looks like the native plant, swamp barnyard grass, Echinochloa telmatophila, which has narrower leaves, less than 18 mm wide.
In NSW, most Aleman grass grows on the north coast of NSW. There have been infestations in the Clarence, Richmond, Tweed and Hastings catchments. Many of these infestations were originally planted as ponded pasture for cattle and have ongoing control programs. A few other infestations have been found locations along the east coast of NSW as far south as the South East region.
In the late 1980s, Aleman grass was released into Queensland as a ponded pasture grass for cattle feed. It supplemented other introduced pasture species.
Aleman grass is native to the Americas. Aleman grass is a serious crop weed in India, Mexico and Argentina. In the southern USA, it is a significant weed of rice crops and crayfish production. It is also a weed in Hawaii, Sri Lanka, Chad and Zaire.
Aleman grass grows best in tropical or subtropical lowlands with high rainfall. It does not tolerate frost or shade.
It tolerates a wide range of soils but grows best in moderate to highly fertile soils. It tolerates acidic soils and grows in soils with a pH range from 4–8.
Aleman grass grows in wetlands, swampy or seasonally flooded areas and the banks of waterways. Usually it grows in wet soils or water up to 1 m deep but occasionally it’s found in open water up to 2m deep.
Aleman grass does not produce many seeds and is unlikely to spread by seed.
New stems grow from long, rooted runners and from nodes along the stem. Water moves broken stems, runners and roots to new locations. Floods can spread plant parts long distances. Changes in water levels help Aleman grass grow into dense stand that excludes other plants. When water levels drop, plants fall over. New shoots grow from the nodes of decaying stems. Each shoot becomes a new plant which grows as water levels rise.
Hannan-Jones M. & Weber J. (2016) Aleman grass Echinochloa polystachya—Pest plant risk assessment, State of Queensland.
Hosking J.R., Sainty G.R., Jacobs S.W.L. & Dellow J.J. (in prep), The Australian WeedBOOK.
Identic Pty Ltd. and Lucid central (2016). Weeds of Australia Fact sheet: Echinochloa polystachya (Kunth) Hitchc. Retrieved 19 October 2022 from: https://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/media/Html/echinochloa_polystachya.htm
Northern Territotry Department of Primary Industry and Resources. (2019). Agnote No:E53 Aleman Grass. Retrieved 3 July 2023 from https://industry.nt.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/233366/642.pdf
PlantNET (The NSW Plant Information Network System). Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust, Sydney. Retrieved 22 October 2021 from: https://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/NSWfl.pl?page=nswfl&lvl=sp&name=Echinochloa~polystachya
Successful weed control requires follow up after the initial efforts. This means looking for and killing regrowth or new seedlings. Using a combination of control methods is usually more successful.
Contact your local council weeds officer for help with identification, control and disposal.
Young plants can be dug out, when the soil is not waterlogged. Collect and dispose of all plant fragments. Mature plants are difficult to remove by hand.
Aleman grass is very palatable and livestock (including cattle and horses) will eat aleman grass down to the crown during dry conditions. Grazing can suppress growth, especially if plants are grazed low enough so that leaves are all submerged when water levels rise.
Spray actively growing plants to the point of run off.
See Using herbicides for more information.
PERMIT 86806 Expires 31/12/2023
Haloxyfop 520 g/L (Only products registered for aquatic use)
Rate: 50 mL product / 100 L OR up to 770 mL product / ha (up to a max water volume of 1540 L/ha)
Comments: Apply as a foliar spray. Add adjuvant (114 g/L Alkyethoxyphosphate) 200 mL product / 100 L. This permit is limited to persons who are employed, directed or contracted by a Local Control Authority in NSW.
Withholding period: Do NOT graze or cut for stock food for 7 - 28 days after application. See label for more details.
Herbicide group: 1 (previously group A), Inhibition of acetyl co-enzyme A carboxylase (ACC'ase Inhibitors)
Resistance risk: High
PERMIT 9907 Expires 31/03/2025
Glyphosate 360 g/L (Only products registered for aquatic use)
Rate: Up to 200 mL in 10 L of water
Comments: Spot spray application.
Withholding period: Nil.
Herbicide group: 9 (previously group M), Inhibition of 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3 phosphate synthase (EPSP inhibition)
Resistance risk: Moderate
The content provided here is for information purposes only and is taken from the Biosecurity Act 2015 and its subordinate legislation, and the Regional Strategic Weed Management Plans (published by each Local Land Services region in NSW). It describes the state and regional priorities for weeds in New South Wales, Australia.
|All of NSW||General Biosecurity Duty
All pest plants are regulated with a general biosecurity duty to prevent, eliminate or minimise any biosecurity risk they may pose. Any person who deals with any plant, who knows (or ought to know) of any biosecurity risk, has a duty to ensure the risk is prevented, eliminated or minimised, so far as is reasonably practicable.
Regional Recommended Measure* (for Regional Priority - Eradication)
Land managers should mitigate the risk of the plant being introduced to their land. Land managers should eradicate the plant from the land and keep the land free of the plant. A person should not deal with the plant, where dealings include but are not limited to buying, selling, growing, moving, carrying or releasing the plant. Notify local control authority if found.
|*To see the Regional Strategic Weeds Management Plans containing demonstrated outcomes that fulfil the general biosecurity duty for this weed click here|