Ox-eye daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare)

Also known as: dog daisy, field daisy, Marguerite, moon daisy , moon-penny, poor-land flower, poverty weed

Ox-eye daisy is an upright plant with a white and yellow flower. It competes with crops, pastures and native plants.

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How does this weed affect you?

Ox-eye daisy spreads quickly and forms dense stands in agricultural areas and in native vegetation. It:

  • is unpalatable to livestock
  • reduces carrying capacity in pastures
  • outcompetes native plants including some endangered species
  • can increase the risk of soil erosion when the above ground plant parts die off over summer, leaving large areas of bare ground.

What does it look like?

Ox-eye daisy is an upright perennial plant that grows up to 1 m tall. It starts as a rosette, a flat tuft of leaves that grow outwards from the middle. Long stems grow from the rosette and have smaller, narrower leaves. It flowers in late spring and early summer. Above ground plant parts die off over summer, regrowing from roots each year. The plant can grow in thick stands, looking like a carpet of white flowers. It has a strong sour smell when crushed.

 Leaves:

There are two types of leaves and overall the size range is from 6-12 cm long and 2-3 cm wide.

Rosette leaves are:

  • dark green
  • on stalks
  • spoon-shaped
  • slightly jagged along the edges
  • larger than stem leaves

 Stem leaves are:

  • dark green
  • often stalkless
  • lance-shaped
  • smaller and narrower than rosette leaves
  • often very jagged on the edges
  • alternate along the stem.

Flowers:

  • have white petals with yellow centres
  • are 3-5 cm wide
  • have a single flower that grows at the end of the stems.

Seeds are:

  • ribbed
  • silvery-grey, brown or black
  • 2-3 mm long and 0.8-1.0 mm wide.

 Stems are:

  • upright or flat along the ground
  • slightly branching
  • often angular or lined
  • usually between 30-90 cm tall
  • sometimes hairy at the base, mostly smooth near the top.

Roots:

  •  are shallow, woody and form extensive networks
  • can be red-tipped
  • include creeping underground rhizomes.

Similar looking plants

Ox-eye daisy looks similar to:

  • shasta daisy (Leucanthemum x superbum), another introduced daisy, a bigger plant with larger leaves and flowers.
  • stinking mayweed (Anthemis cotula), which has smaller flowers and finely divided leaves.

Where is it found?

In New South Wales it is growing on the tablelands from Glen Innes to Bombala. It is an environmental weed in Kosciuszko National Park. Ox-eye daisy is also a weed in New Zealand and North America.

It is native to Europe and parts of Asia.

What type of environment does it grow in?

Ox-eye daisy grows in temperate climates. It grows best in heavy, damp soils and often grows on soils with low nutrient levels. It prefers sunny locations and has some tolerance for dry, frosty and salty conditions.

It is found in:

  • disturbed areas such as roadsides, cleared land and overgrazed pastures
  • sub-alpine grasslands
  • snowgum woodlands
  • wetlands
  • areas that have been burnt.

Maps and records

  • Recorded presence of Ox-eye daisy during property inspections (Map: Biosecurity Information System - Weeds, 2017-2021)
    These records are made by authorised officers during property inspections under the Biosecurity Act 2015. Officers record the presence of priority weeds in their council area and provide this to the NSW Department of Primary Industries. Records reflect the presence of the weed on the date of inspection.

How does it spread?

By seeds

Ox-eye daisy is spread by plant parts and seeds. Each plant can produce up to 26,000 seeds, of which, over 80% can live for at least 6 years in the soil. Seeds can be dormant for up to 39 years. Seeds are spread by:

  • water
  • animals
  • sticking to vehicles and equipment
  • contaminated produce.

By plant parts

Ox-eye daisy can grow from rhizome fragments, which are spread by contaminated vehicles and earth moving or harvesting equipment.

References

Agriculture Victoria (2020). Invasiveness Assessment - Ox-eye daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare) in Victoria. Retreived January 2021 from: http://vro.agriculture.vic.gov.au/dpi/vro/vrosite.nsf/pages/invasive_ox_eye_daisy

CABI, (2017). Leucanthemum vulgare In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Retreived 2018 from: www.cabi.org

McConnachie, A. J., Peach, E., Turner, P. J., Stutz, S., Schaffner, U., & Simmons, A. (2015). The invasive weed ox-eye daisy, Leucanthemum vulgare Lam.(Asteraceae): Prospects for its management in New South Wales. Plant Protection Quarterly, 30(3).

Office of Environment and Heritage (2015) NSW Weeds Ox-eye daisy. Retreived 2018 from: www.environment.nsw.gov.au

PlantNET (The NSW Plant Information Network System). Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust, Sydney. Retrieved January 2021 from: https://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/NSWfl.pl?page=nswfl&lvl=sp&name=Leucanthemum~vulgare

Taranaki Educational Resource,Research, Analysis and Information Network. Ox-eye daisy. Retreived 2018 from: http://www.terrain.net.nz/friends-of-te-henui-group/weeds/daisy-ox-eye-leucanthemum-vulgare.html

More information

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Control

Ox-eye daisy can be hard to manage because it spreads so easily. Plants can be controlled by:

  • herbicides
  • pasture management
  • cultivation
  • physical removal

Combining the use of different control options will give the best overall result. Because plants produce a lot of long-lived seed, follow up will be critical. Return to control areas regularly to check progress and re-treat when needed.

Pasture management

Establish and maintain competitive pastures to outcompete ox-eye daisy. Ox-eye daisy is not competitive with grasses especially in high nitrogen soils. Therefore, adding nitrogen fertilizer to pastures can be a successful control method. Avoid overgrazing as ox-eye daisy can invade bare ground.

Physical removal

Hand pull or dig up seedlings, small plants and isolated infestations before they flower, Remove roots from at least 10 cm below ground to avoid regrowth of the plant. This is easiest when the soil is damp and loose.

Cultivation

Deep cultivation (to 20 cm) can be effective, especially in summer. Additionally, shallower cultivation can kill seedlings and plants that have regrown from root fragments.

Cultivation can be used as part of an integrated control program and followed up with the establishment of competitive plants like perennial pasture species. Repeat efforts will be needed to manage any seed stored in the soil.

Shallow cultivation on its own can spread the plant via root fragments.

Chemical control

Spraying large infestations is most effective when plants are in the early flowering stage.

High rates of herbicide are needed to manage ox-eye daisy therefore early action to prevent large infestations establishing is best.

 

Herbicide options

WARNING - ALWAYS READ THE LABEL
Users of agricultural or veterinary chemical products must always read the label and any permit, before using the product, and strictly comply with the directions on the label and the conditions of any permit. Users are not absolved from compliance with the directions on the label or the conditions of the permit by reason of any statement made or not made in this information. To view permits or product labels go to the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority website www.apvma.gov.au

See Using herbicides for more information.


PERMIT 89080 Expires 31/10/2025
Metsulfuron-methyl 600 g/kg (Various products)
Rate: 10 g per 100 L water
Comments: Spot spray terrestrial situations and margins of aquatic areas. Do not spray within 400 m of potable water. Do not apply more than 2 applications per growing season. Minimum retreatment interval 2 months. See permit for critical use comments.
Withholding period: Nil (recommended not to graze for 7 days before treatment and for 7 days after treatment to allow adequate chemical uptake in target weeds).
Herbicide group: B, Inhibitors of acetolactate synthase (ALS inhibitors)
Resistance risk: High


PERMIT 14832 Expires 30/09/2024
Metsulfuron-methyl 600 g/kg (Various products)
Rate: 1-2 g per 10L of water. Apply in a volume of 50–80 L/ha.
Comments: Aerial boom spray applications. Refer to the critical use comments in the permit.
Withholding period: Nil (recommended not to graze for 7 days before treatment and for 7 days after treatment to allow adequate chemical uptake in target weeds).
Herbicide group: B, Inhibitors of acetolactate synthase (ALS inhibitors)
Resistance risk: High


Dicamba 750 g/L (Kamba® 750)
Rate: 5.9 L/ha Use a minimum of 1500 L/ha water carrier. Add a surfactant.
Comments: Boom spray for non-crop situations. Spray prior to flowering.
Withholding period: Do not harvest, graze or cut for stock food for 7 days after application.
Herbicide group: I, Disruptors of plant cell growth (synthetic auxins)
Resistance risk: Moderate


Dicamba 750 g/L (Kamba® 750)
Rate: 400 mL per 100 L of water. Add a surfactant.
Comments: Spray prior to flowering. For non crop situations.
Withholding period: Do not harvest, graze or cut for stock food for 7 days after application.
Herbicide group: I, Disruptors of plant cell growth (synthetic auxins)
Resistance risk: Moderate


Dicamba 750 g/L (Kamba® 750)
Rate: 87 mL per 15 L of water. Add a surfactant.
Comments: Spot spray prior to flowering. For non-crop situations.
Withholding period: Do not harvest, graze or cut for stock food for 7 days after application.
Herbicide group: I, Disruptors of plant cell growth (synthetic auxins)
Resistance risk: Moderate


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Biosecurity duty

The content provided here is for information purposes only and is taken from the Biosecurity Act 2015 and its subordinate legislation, and the Regional Strategic Weed Management Plans (published by each Local Land Services region in NSW). It describes the state and regional priorities for weeds in New South Wales, Australia.

Area Duty
All of NSW General Biosecurity Duty
All plants are regulated with a general biosecurity duty to prevent, eliminate or minimise any biosecurity risk they may pose. Any person who deals with any plant, who knows (or ought to know) of any biosecurity risk, has a duty to ensure the risk is prevented, eliminated or minimised, so far as is reasonably practicable.
Central Tablelands Regional Recommended Measure*
Land managers should mitigate the risk of new weeds being introduced to their land. Land managers should mitigate spread from their land. The plant should not be bought, sold, grown, carried or released into the environment.
Protect conservation areas, natural environments and primary production lands that are free of ox-eye daisy
Hunter
Exclusion zone: whole region except for the core infestation area of the Barrington Tops Plateau
Regional Recommended Measure*
Whole region: The plant should not be bought, sold, grown, carried or released into the environment. Exclusion zone: The plant should be eradicated from the land and the land kept free of the plant. Land managers should mitigate the risk of the plant being introduced to their land. Core infestation area: Land managers should mitigate spread from their land.Land managers to reduce impacts from the plant on priority assets.
Murray Regional Recommended Measure*
Land managers should mitigate the risk of new weeds being introduced to their land. The plant should not be bought, sold, grown, carried or released into the environment. Notify local control authority if found.
Riverina Regional Recommended Measure*
Land managers should mitigate the risk of new weeds being introduced to their land. The plant should be eradicated from the land and the land kept free of the plant. The plant should not be bought, sold, grown, carried or released into the environment. Notify local control authority if found.
*To see the Regional Strategic Weeds Management Plans containing demonstrated outcomes that fulfil the general biosecurity duty for this weed click here

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For technical advice and assistance with identification please contact your local council weeds officer.
For further information call the NSW DPI Biosecurity Helpline on 1800 680 244 or send an email to weeds@dpi.nsw.gov.au

Reviewed 2021